Skip header and navigation

Refine By

176 records – page 1 of 18.

''The Negro and the American Dream,'' Address delivered at Memorial Auditorium

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document601230-008
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
[Chattanooga, Tenn.]
Document Date
[12/30/1960]
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Audio Tape
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
601230-008
Document Date
[12/30/1960]
Document Type
Audio Tape
Status
Cal. 5
Cal. 7
Place Written
[Chattanooga, Tenn.]
Genre
Speech
Document Length
34 min.
Document Note
1 sound cassette: analog
Dates
1896
1957
Names
Myrdal, Gunnar
King, Coretta Scott
Washington, Booker T.
Hayes, Roland
Anderson, Marian
Sibelius, Jean
Toscanini, Arturo
Carver, George Washington
Bethune, Mary McLeod
Owens, Jesse
Louis, Joe
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson)
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich
MacMillan, Harold
Maria Cristina, Queen, consort of Alfonso XII, King of Spain
George V, King of Great Britain
Organizations
Democratic Party
Republican Party
United States. Supreme Court
United States. Congress
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Nigeria
Ghana
Gordon County, Ga.
Virginia
Philadelphia, Pa.
Finland
Atlanta, Ga.
Fayette County, Tenn.
Haywood County, Tenn.
Topics
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Discrimination
Discrimination in public accomodations
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Second Emancipation Proclamation
Voter registration
Other Topics
Emancipation Proclamation
Declaration of Independence
Plessy Doctrine
Constitution of the United States
Charity
Oh Freedom
Code for Location of Original
BTC-INP
Location of Original
Barry Tulloss Collection, In Private Hands
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
6/9/2004 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
9/10/2010
5/28/2013 dbeals
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:18 AM
Less detail

''Equality Now: The President Has the Power: Equality Now''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610204-000
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Document Date
2/4/1961
Genre
Published article
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Document ID
610204-000
Document Date
2/4/1961
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Document
Status
In Vol. 7
Cal. 6
Genre
Published article
Document Length
5 pp.
Published In
The Nation 192 (4 February 1961): 91-95.
Dates
1954
1959
1/21/1961
1948
1934
1946
Names
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Emerson, Thomas Irwin
Truman, Harry S.
Ribicoff, Abraham [United States. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare]
Bonfield, Arthur E.
Wright, J. Skelly
Bootle, W. A.
Organizations
Harper & Row, Publishers
Christian Education Press
United States. Supreme Court
Democratic Party
United States. Congress. Senate
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States Commission on Civil Rights
The Nation
United States. White House
United States--Armed Forces
United States. President's Committee on Government Employment Policy
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States. Department of the Treasury
United States. Internal Revenue Service
United States. Bureau of Narcotics
United States. Alcohol Tax Unit
United States. Secret Service
U.S. Customs Service
United States. Federal Housing Administration
United States. Public Housing Administration
United States. Urban Renewal Administration
United States. Veterans Administration
United States. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
United States. Department of Agriculture
United States. Dept. of Justice
United States. President's Committee on Civil Rights
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Washington, D.C.
India
Topics
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Discrimination in public accomodations
Discrimination in housing
Emancipation Proclamation
Federal intervention
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Political and Social views
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications - Reprints
Montgomery Bus Boycott
School integration
Segregation--law and legislation
Voter registration
Other Topics
Forgotten Remedy for the Voteless Negro
Stride Toward Freedom
The Measure of a Man
Code for Location of Original
SDLC-INP
Location of Original
Stanley D. Levison Collection, In Private Hands
Location of Original - Detail
M2 #242
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
1/20/1994 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
01/25/1994
3/14/2013 dbeals
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:18:54 AM
Less detail

Reprint, ''Equality Now''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610204-004
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Document Date
[2/4/1961]
Genre
Published article
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Document ID
610204-004
Document Date
[2/4/1961]
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Document
Genre
Published article
Document Length
4 pp.
Published In
Kentucky Negro Journal 4 (Summer 1961)
Dates
1954
1959
1/21/1961
1948
1934
1946
Names
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Emerson, Thomas Irwin
Truman, Harry S.
Ribicoff, Abraham [United States. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare]
Bonfield, Arthur E.
Wright, J. Skelly
Bootle, W. A.
Organizations
Harper & Row, Publishers
Christian Education Press
United States. Supreme Court
Democratic Party
United States. Congress. Senate
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States Commission on Civil Rights
The Nation
United States. White House
United States--Armed Forces
United States. President's Committee on Government Employment Policy
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States. Department of the Treasury
United States. Internal Revenue Service
United States. Bureau of Narcotics
United States. Alcohol Tax Unit
United States. Secret Service
U.S. Customs Service
United States. Federal Housing Administration
United States. Public Housing Administration
United States. Urban Renewal Administration
United States. Veterans Administration
United States. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
United States. Department of Agriculture
United States. Dept. of Justice
United States. President's Committee on Civil Rights
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Washington, D.C.
India
Topics
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Discrimination in public accomodations
Discrimination in housing
Emancipation Proclamation
Federal intervention
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Political and Social views
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications - Reprints
Montgomery Bus Boycott
School integration
Segregation--law and legislation
Voter registration
Other Topics
Forgotten Remedy for the Voteless Negro
Stride Toward Freedom
The Measure of a Man
Code for Location of Original
MCMLK-RWWL
Location of Original
Morehouse College Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection, Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives and Special Collections, Atlanta, Ga.
Location of Original - Detail
2.4.0.90
Copy Location (1)
MLKP-MBU, Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers, 1954-1968, Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University, Boston, Mass.
Copy Location (2)
CSKCH-INP, Coretta Scott King Home Study Collection, In Private Hands
Copy Location (3)
DLC, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Copy Location (4)
SCLCE-GEU-S, Southern Christian Leadership Conference Records, 1864-2007, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Box 817, folder 44
Copy Location (5)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
4/11/2013 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
4/11/2013 szwald
Date Updated
6/2/2015 3:04:27 PM
Less detail

''Self-Portrait of a Symbol: Martin Luther King''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610215-029
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Document Date
2/13/1961-2/15/1961
Genre
Published article
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
610215-029
Document Date
2/13/1961-2/15/1961
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Document
Status
In Vol. 7
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Genre
Published article
Document Length
3 pp.
Published In
New York Post, 13 February 1961.
New York Post, 14 February 1961.
New York Post, 15 February 1961.
Dates
1954
2/7/1961
2/8/1961
Names
Wallace, Mike
Wilkins, Roy
Jesus Christ
Thoreau, Henry David
Gandhi, Mahatma
Eisenhower, Dwight D.(Dwight David)
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
King, Coretta Scott
Jefferson, Thomas
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
Lincoln, Abraham
Marx, Karl
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)
Sitton, Claude
Stalin, Joseph
Baldwin, James
Organizations
Harper's Magazine
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
WNTA-TV
United States. Supreme Court
New York Times Company
United States. Federal Housing Administration
Nation Magazine
Places
New Orleans, La.
Levittown, N.J.
Washington, D.C.
Topics
Communism
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Political and Social views
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Interviews
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Childhood and Youth
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications
Discrimination in housing
Discrimination in Employment
Discrimination in public accomodations
Presidential candidates, 1960
Presidential Elections
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Television public speaking
Sit-ins
Civil Disobedience
Direct action
Code for Location of Original
MLKJP-GAMK
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
7/9/2010 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
5/18/2012 jmkunz
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:57 AM
Less detail

Letter to the Editor

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610300-015
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
[Atlanta, Ga.]
Document Date
[3/1961]
Genre
Letter
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
610300-015
Document Date
[3/1961]
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Document
Status
In Vol. 7
Place Written
[Atlanta, Ga.]
Genre
Letter
Document Length
2 pp.
Dates
2/1961
Names
Wofford, Harris
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Gandhi, Mahatma
Hesburgh, Theodore Martin [United States. Commission on Civil Rights]
Organizations
United States. White House
Peace Corps
Hampton Institute
United States. Commission on Civil Rights
Howard University
Places
India
Topics
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Political and Social views
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Friends and Associates
Sit-ins
Student movements
Presidential Elections
Civil Disobedience
Other Topics
India Afire
Code for Location of Original
MCMLK-RWWL
Location of Original
Morehouse College Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection, Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives and Special Collections, Atlanta, Ga.
Location of Original - Detail
2.4.0.140
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
10/14/2003 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
3/14/2012 szwald
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:12 AM
Less detail

Statement regarding Martin Luther King, Jr.

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610520-003
Author
United Press International
Place Written
Washington, D.C.
Document Date
[5/20/1962]
Genre
Letter
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
United Press International
Document ID
610520-003
Document Date
[5/20/1962]
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Document
Place Written
Washington, D.C.
Genre
Letter
Document Length
1 p.
Dates
5/28/1961
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David)
Organizations
Freedom Ride Coordinating Committee
United Press International
Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, Ga.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Topics
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation--Archives
Freedom rides
Gandhism
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Articles about
Second Emancipation Proclamation
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Television public speaking
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Childhood and Youth
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Parents
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Code for Location of Original
RFBI-DNA
Location of Original
Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States National Archives and Records Service, National Archives Library, Washington, D.C.
Location of Original - Detail
100-106670
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
10/23/2003 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
10/27/2003 15:34:54
1/28/2014 dbeals
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:12 AM
Less detail

''What's Behind The Freedom Rides,'' Part I

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610617-002
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
Baltimore, Md.
Document Date
6/17/1961
Genre
Published article
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
610617-002
Document Date
6/17/1961
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Document
Place Written
Baltimore, Md.
Genre
Published article
Document Length
1 p.
Document Note
Reprint of 2/4/61 Nation article.
Published In
Afro-American, 17 June 1961.
Dates
7/1/1961
7/8/1961
7/15/1961
2/4/1961
Names
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Organizations
United States. Supreme Court
United States. White House
Topics
Freedom rides
School integration
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Discrimination in public accomodations
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Political and Social views
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Publications
Other Topics
Equality Now
The Nation
Code for Location of Original
CSt-MLK
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
10/28/1999 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
10/29/1999
4/16/2012 szwald
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:18:55 AM
Less detail

Report on discrimination by the federal government

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document610829-002
Author
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Document Date
8/29/1961
Genre
Report
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
Document ID
610829-002
Document Date
8/29/1961
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 7
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Genre
Report
Document Length
78 pp.
Dates
1890
1946
1954
1950
1948
1937
1917
1862
4/13/1961
4/25/1961
3/12/1961
6/24/1957
7/26/1948
2/3/1961
2/6/1961
6/1/1961
Names
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Feldman, Meyer
Goodwin, Richard
Dolan, Joseph F. (Joseph Francis)
Sorensen, Theodore C.
Martin, Louis E.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David)
Milton, Hugh M.
Runge, Carlisle P.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)
Truman, Harry S.
Organizations
United States. Congress. Senate
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Federal Housing Administration.
United States. Dept. of the Interior
United States. Dept. of Defense
United States. Army
United States. National Guard
United States. Commission on Civil Rights
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
United States. Office of Health, Education, and Welfare
University of Georgia
United States. Dept. of Labor
United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Farm Security Administration
United States. Dept. of Justice
United States. Veteran's Administration
Democratic Party
United States. President's Committee on Government Contracts
United States. Dept. of Agriculture
United States. Supreme Court
President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities
Southern Regional Council
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Places
New Orleans, La.
Washington, D.C.
New York, N.Y.
Charleston, S.C.
Fayette County, Tenn.
Haywood County, Tenn.
Birmingham, Ala.
Montgomery, Ala.
Anniston, Ala.
Prince Edward County, Va.
Norfolk, Va.
South Africa
West Point, N.Y.
Fort Hood, Texas
Huntsville, Ala.
Pulaski County, Ark.
Rutherford County, Texas
Topics
Afro-American Education
Afro-Americans - Economic conditions
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Discrimination in Employment
Discrimination in housing
Discrimination in public accomodations
Economic development
Ghettos
Meetings
political participation
School integration
Segregation in transportation
Segregation--law and legislation
Voter registration
Other Topics
New York Times
Executive Order 10925
Brown vs. Board of Education
Executive Order 9981
Negro Wage Earner and Apprenticeship Training Programs
Code for Location of Original
JFKWHCSF-MBJFK
Location of Original
John F. Kennedy Presidential Papers, White House Central Subject Files, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Mass.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
11/22/2005 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
9/13/2011
7/2/2012 szwald
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:37 AM
Less detail

''Report to the Executive Council of the AFL-CIO''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document611012-015
Author
Potofsky, Jacob S. (Jacob Samuel)
Harrison, George M.
Walsh, Richard F.
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Document Date
10/12/1961
Genre
Document
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Potofsky, Jacob S. (Jacob Samuel)
Harrison, George M.
Walsh, Richard F.
Author Affiliation
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
Document ID
611012-015
Document Date
10/12/1961
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 7
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Genre
Document
Document Length
29 pp.
Dates
6/14/1961
7/1/1961
3/5/1961
5/1961
3/1960
11/17/1959
8/21/1961
10/27/1957
5/16/1957
11/1957
5/21/1959
4/1961
2/15/1961
2/17/1961
6/25/1961 - 6/30/1961
Names
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Meany, George
Powell, Adam Clayton
Smith, Richard
Terry, Raymond
Long, Archie
Hankerson, Charles
Southall, James
Grey, John
Warner, Leonard
Cherry, Ernest
Weaver, George L.P.
Brown, Theodore E.
Zimmerman, Charles S.
Wade, Willie J.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David)
Weaver, Robert Clifton
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Truman, Harry S.
Organizations
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids
National Urban League
Committee on Civil Rights
Negro American Labor Council
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
United States. Dept. of International Affairs
International Union, United Automobile Workers of America (CIO)
Housing and Home Finance Agency
Jewish Labor Committee (U.S.)
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators
Hotel and Restaurant Employees International Union
United States. Dept. of Labor
Places
Washington, D.C.
Chicago, Ill.
Holt, Ala.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Little Rock, Ark.
Levittown, Pa.
Baltimore, Md.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Topics
Labor Movement
Afro Americans - Jewish relations
Afro-Americans - Economic conditions
Afro-Americans - Social conditions
Discrimination in Employment
Segregation--law and legislation
Demonstrations
Other Topics
Memorandum on Civil Rights in the AFL-CIO
Forand Bill
Civil War
American Labor Movement
Philip Murray Award
James J. Hoey Award
Equal Opportunity Day Award
Justice When it Counts Most: Equal Rights in the Ression
Code for Location of Original
APRP-DLC
Location of Original
A. Philip Randolph Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 23, folder CR
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
11/5/2010 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
2/1/2011
3/12/2012 jmkunz
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:58 AM
Less detail

Progress in the Area of Race Relations, Address at Central Hall Westminster

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document611030-014
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
London, England.
Document Date
10/30/1961
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
611030-014
Document Date
10/30/1961
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Type of Version
Draft
Status
Cal. 7
Place Written
London, England.
Genre
Speech
Document Length
13 pp.
Dates
5/17/1954
11/1/1961
Names
Collins, L. John
Hall, Stuart
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Gandhi, Mahatma
Plato
Poe, Edgar Allan
Shakespeare, William
Darwin, Charles
Lincoln, Abraham
Carlyle, Thomas
Lowell, James Russell
Bryant, William Cullen
Organizations
Christian Action
White Citizens Council
Ku Klux Klan
United States. Interstate Commerce Commission
Places
Little Rock, Ark.
Atlanta, Ga.
Topics
Afro-American Education
Afro-Americans - Economic conditions
Afro-Americans - Social conditions
African American History
Agape
Blacks - Diaspora
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
Church and Race Relations
Discrimination in public accomodations
Economic development
Freedom rides
Gandhism
Little Rock School Crisis, 1957
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Travels
Nonviolence
Plessy vs Ferguson, 1896
political participation
School integration
Segregation in transportation
Segregation--law and legislation
Sit-ins
Slavery
Voter registration
Other Topics
The Negroes Complaint
Acts 17:26
Annabel Lee
Sonnet 116
Amos 5:24
Code for Location of Original
LJCC-UK-LoLPL
Location of Original
Lewis John Collins Collection, Lambeth Palace Library, London SE1 7JU, United Kingdom
Location of Original - Detail
MS3297, folios 132-144
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
9/11/2006 12:00:00 AM
Date Updated
4/8/2014 12:50:48 PM
Less detail

176 records – page 1 of 18.