Skip header and navigation

Refine By

48 records – page 1 of 5.

Draft, Chapter IX, ''Desegregation at Last,'' Stride Toward Freedom

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document580500-043
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
[Montgomery, Ala.]
Document Date
[5/1957-5/1958]
Genre
Essay
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Autograph -- author's hand
Typed
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
580500-043
Document Date
[5/1957-5/1958]
Type of Writing
Autograph -- author's hand
Typed
Document Type
Document
Type of Version
Draft
Status
Cal. 4
Place Written
[Montgomery, Ala.]
Genre
Essay
Document Length
71 pp.
Document Note
Includes enclosed statement.
Dates
2/1/1956
12/28/1956
1/10/1957
10/30/1956
1/28/1957
11/13/1956
1/31/1957
5/1957 - 5/1958
Names
Alexander, T.M. (Theodore Martin)
King, Coretta Scott
Gayle, W. A.
Johnson, Frank Minis
Thomas, Rex [Associated Press]
Gray, Fred D.
Hall, Peter
Johns, Vernon
Langford, Charles D.
Billingsley, Orzell
Abernathy, Ralph
Johnson, Frank M.
Sellers, Clyde
Till, Emmett
Nixon, Edgar Daniel
Black, Hugo LaFayette
Seay, S. S. (Solomon Snowden)
Smiley, Glenn E. [Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.)]
Graetz, Robert S.
Abernathy, Juanita Odessa Jones
Hall, Grover C.
Patterson, Merle [First Presbyterian Church]
Shores, Arthur D. (Arthur Davis)
Carter, Robert L. [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]
Organizations
Lloyd’s (Firm)
Associated Press
First Presbyterian Church
Men of Montgomery
United States. Supreme Court
Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.)
Montgomery Improvement Association
Hutchinson Street Baptist Church
Bell Street Baptist Church
Mount Olive Baptist Church
St. John A.M.E. Church
The Montgomery Advertiser
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
First Baptist Church
Places
Atlanta, Ga.
Tallahassee, Fla.
Topics
Stride Toward Freedom
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Threats/attacks against
Montgomery Improvement Association--trials, litigation, etc.
Plessy vs Ferguson, 1896
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
Montgomery Improvement Association--Assaults against
Churches-vandalism
Nonviolence
Code for Location of Original
MLKP-MBU
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers, 1954-1968, Boston University, Boston, Mass.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 87, folder 8B (3 of 3)
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
10/7/1991 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
10/08/1991
Date Updated
4/14/2009 9:57:04 AM
Less detail

Interview by David J. Garrow

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document830717-000
Author
Nash, Diane
Document Date
7/17/1983
Genre
Oral histories
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Nash, Diane
Author Dates
1938-
Document ID
830717-000
Document Date
7/17/1983
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
undecided
Genre
Oral histories
Document Length
48 pp.
Dates
1965
1966
1967
9/1963
1961
8/27/1983
8/5/1962
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr. [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]
Parks, Rosa
Carson, Clayborne
Lawson, James M.
Smith, Kelly Miller
Marshall, Thurgood
Walker, Wyatt Tee
Baker, Ella
Abernathy, Ralph
Wood, James R.
Kennedy, Robert F.
Marshall, Burke
Jenkins, Tim
Moses, Robert Parris
McKinney, Fester
Brooks, Paul
Brooks, Catherine
Nash, Sherri
Bevel, James L. (James Luther)
Moore, Ansley
Lasley, Russell R.
Jordan, Vernon E. (Vernon Eulion) [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)]
Hurley, Ruby
Frinks, Golden
LaFayette, Bernard
Vivian, C. T.
Henderson, Thelton
Clark, James
Shuttlesworth, Fred L.
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Young, Andrew
Porter, John Thomas
Gandhi, Mahatma
Billups, Charles
Reese, Effie
Bellafonte, Harry
Pritchett, Laurie
Levison, Stanley D.
Wofford, Harris
Organizations
Fisk University
Nashville Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (US)
United States Justice Department
Highlander Folk School (Monteagle, Tenn.)
Highlander Research and Education Center (Knoxville,Tenn.)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Selma, Ala.
Birmingham, Ala.
Nashville, Tenn.
Chicago, Ill.
Raleigh, N.C.
Atlanta, Ga.
Jackson, Miss.
Washington, D.C.
New York, N.Y.
Albany, Ga.
Detroit, Mich.
Cleveland, Miss.
Greenwood, Miss.
Greenville, Miss.
Louisville, Miss.
Williamston, N.C.
Topics
Freedom rides
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Nonviolence
Sit-ins
Code for Location of Original
DJG-GEU-S
Location of Original
David J. Garrow Collection, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 8.2, folder 11
Date Created
3/3/2004 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
5/3/2004 12:54:20
ebrummel
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:16 AM
Less detail

Oral history interview by Taylor Branch

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document831118-000
Author
Farmer, James
Document Date
11/18/1983
Genre
Audio
Document Type
Audio Tape
Author
Farmer, James
Author Dates
1920-1999
Document ID
831118-000
Document Date
11/18/1983
Document Type
Audio Tape
Status
Cal. 7
Genre
Audio
Document Length
226.0 min.
Document Note
MP3
Dates
5/17/1961
9/1961
12/24/1962
9/2/1962
12/4/1963
2/1964
7/1965
1967
12/25/1965
11/27/1965
1960
1956
7/2/1963
8/19/1964
11/19/1964
4/1965
6/8/1968
Names
Goodman, Andrew
Chaney, James Earl
Vanocur, Sander
Bradlee, Ben
Wilkins, Roy
Evers, Medgar Wiley
Carmichael, Stokely
Forman, James
Miles, O. Thomas
Collins, Lucretia
Shuttlesworth, Fred L.
Abernathy, Ralph
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Lewis, John
Nash, Diane
Price, Cecil
Rainey, Lawrence
Snodgrass
Gregory, Mr.
Melman, Seymour
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald)
Hill, Norman
Peterson, Lula
Rustin, Bayard
Branton, Wiley A.
Young, Whitney M.
Hoover, J. Edgar (John Edgar)
Wachtel, Harry H.
LaFayette, Bernard
Gandhi, Mahatma
Walker, Wyatt Tee
Connor, Eugene
Lawson, James M.
Castle, Doris
Barnett, Ross R.
X, Malcolm
Belafonte, Harry
Johnson, Paul B.
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines)
Schwerner, Michael Henry
Bartlett, Edward Lewis
Booker, Simeon
Harrington, Michael
Shriver, Sargent
Blackwell, Randolph T.
Powell, Adam Clayton
Stone, Chuck
Wagner, Robert F. (Robert Ferdinand)
Gibons, Sam
Lewis, David Levering
Peck, James
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt)
Carey, Gordon R.
Young, Andrew
Williams, Hosea
Chaney, (Mrs.)
Robinson, Cleveland L. (Cleveland Lowellyn)
White, Lee C.
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Thomas, Norman
Greenberg, Jack
Garrow, David
Marshall, Burke
Katzenbach, Nicholas deB. (Nicholas deBelleville)
Carey, Archibald J. (Archibald James)
Odell, Jack
Poston, Ted
DeLoach, Cartha D.
McDonald, Dora E.
Blayton, Jesse B.
Wiley, George A.
Kennedy, Jay Richard
Levison, Stanley D.
Levison, Janet Alterman
Muste, Abraham John
Worth, William
Wurf, Jerry
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Smiley, Glenn E.
Reagan, Ronald
Lynch, Lincoln
McKissick, Floyd B. (Floyd Bixler)
Organizations
Center for Community Action Education
Communist Party of the United States of America
Alabama National Guard
Mississippi National Guard
Jet Magazine
National Youth Administration
Office of Economic Opportunity
Washington Post
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Congress of Racial Equality
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
National Literacy Drive
United States. White House
United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Education and Labor Committee
National Action Council
Citizenship Education Program
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Poor People's Campaign
United States. Department of Agriculture
Marshall Field Foundation
United Nations
Fellowship of Reconciliation (U.S.)
Le Figaro Magazine
Roosevelt Hotel
New York Amsterdam News
United States. Department of Justice
New York Post
Antioch College
John F. Kennedy International Airport
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Jackson, Miss.
Atlanta, Ga.
Birmingham, Ala.
New Orleans, La.
Nashville, Tenn.
Connecticut
Commonwealth of the Bahamas
India
Marshall, Texas
Chicago, Ill.
Pasadena, Calif.
Durham, N.C.
Boston, Mass.
St. Louis, Mo.
Selma, Ala.
Los Angeles, Calif.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
New York, N.Y.
Washington, D.C.
St. Augustine, Fla.
South Carolina
Philadelphia, Pa.
Savannah, Ga.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Oslo, Norway
Topics
Freedom rides
Saint Augustine (Fla.)--Race relations
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Career in Ministry
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Critics
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Honors - Nobel Peace Prize
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975
Communism
Voting Rights Act, 1965
Meetings
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Code for Location of Original
TBP-NcU
Location of Original
Taylor Branch Papers, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, N.C.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
12/5/2013 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
3/8/2016 corala
Date Updated
3/8/2016 10:41:25 AM
Less detail

Interview with William G. Anderson

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document851107-002
Author
Anderson, William G.
Place Written
Atlanta, Ga.
Document Date
11/7/1985
Genre
Interview
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
Anderson, William G.
Author Dates
1927-
Document ID
851107-002
Document Date
11/7/1985
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Status
Undecided
Place Written
Atlanta, Ga.
Genre
Interview
Document Length
15 pp.
Published In
Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years (1954-1965)
Names
Sherrod, Charles
Hamilton, Ed
Pritchett, Laurie
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Young, Andrew
Abernathy, Ralph
Cochran, Frank
Walker, Solomon
Chapman, Thomas
Hallowell, Don
King C. B. (Chevene Bowers)
Walker, Wyatt Tee
Kennedy, Robert F.
Marshall, Burke
Anderson, Marian
Kelley, Asa D.
Organizations
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Albany Movement (Albany, Ga.)
Albany Herald
David D. Howard High School (Atlanta, Ga.)
Congress of Racial Equality
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
National Urban League
United States. Dept. of Justice
United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States. National Guard
Places
Albany, Ga.
Montgomery, Ala.
New York
Topics
Albany Movement
Freedom rides
Sit-ins
Civil rights
Arrest
Demonstrations
Code for Location of Original
HHC-MoSW
Location of Original
Henry Hampton Collection, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
5/19/2009 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
6/8/2009
alexmw
Date Updated
6/2/2015 9:19:52 AM
Less detail

Letter to J. H. (Joseph Harrison) Jackson

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570000-041
Author
Jackson, L. K.
Document Date
[1957]
Genre
Letter
Document Type
Letter
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Jackson, L. K.
Document ID
570000-041
Document Date
[1957]
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Letter
Type of Version
Fragment
Type of Signature
Signed (Handwritten signature of author)
Status
Cal. 4
Genre
Letter
Document Length
1 p.
Names
Jackson, J. H. (Joseph Harrison)
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Taylor, Gardner C.
Smith, E. C.
Henderson, J. Raymond
Borders, William Holmes
Haynes, Frederick Douglas
Christ, Jesus
Jernagin, William Henry
Organizations
Southern Baptist Convention
National Baptist Convention of the United States of America
White Citizens Council
Olivet Baptist Church
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Ku Klux Klan
Topics
Internal Conflicts
Other Topics
1 Corinthians 13:1
Luke 9:23
Code for Location of Original
MLKP-MBU
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers, 1954-1968, Boston University, Boston, Mass.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 116, folder 43
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
9/20/1991 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
10/07/1991
Date Updated
1/20/2009 2:51:02 PM
Less detail

''Notes on Nonviolence''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570000-061
Author
[Rustin, Bayard]
Document Date
[1957]
Genre
Sermon
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Autograph -- author's hand
Author
[Rustin, Bayard]
Author Dates
1912-1979
Document ID
570000-061
Document Date
[1957]
Type of Writing
Typed
Autograph -- author's hand
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal 6
Genre
Sermon
Document Length
5 pp.
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Faubus, Orval Eugene
Smith, Lillian Eugenia
Chapman, John Jay
Garrison, William Lloyd
Christ, Jesus
Gandhi, Mahatma
Organizations
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Republican Party
Democratic Party
Places
Little Rock, Ark.
Topics
Nonviolence
Imperialism
Race relations
Afro-Americans - Economic conditions
Afro-Americans - Social conditions
Other Topics
The Selected Writing of J.J.Chapman
Code for Location of Original
CSKC-INP
Location of Original
Coretta Scott King Collection, In Private Hands
Location of Original - Detail
Sermon Files, folder 159
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
5/28/1997 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
06/02/1997
Date Updated
1/20/2009 2:51:03 PM
Less detail

Press release, ''Bus Protesters Call Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570107-004
Author
Montgomery Improvement Association
Place Written
Montgomery, Ala.
Document Date
1/7/1957
Genre
Press release
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Montgomery Improvement Association
Document ID
570107-004
Document Date
1/7/1957
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
In Vol. 4
Place Written
Montgomery, Ala.
Genre
Press release
Document Length
1 p.
Dates
1/11/1957
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Shuttlesworth, Fred L.
Steele, C. Kenzie
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip) [American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)][Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids]
Organizations
Montgomery Improvement Association
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, Ga.)
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids
Places
Tallahassee, Fla.
Birmingham, Ala.
Atlanta, Ga.
Topics
Afro-Americans--Intimidation of
Martin Luther King, Jr.--membership in organizations
Segregation in transportation
Segregation--law and legislation
Voter registration
Economic development
Nonviolence
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Code for Location of Original
BRP-DLC
Location of Original
Bayard Rustin Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Copy Location (1)
MLKJP-GAMK, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Box 35, folder 8
Copy Location (2)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
2/13/1990 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
02/16/1990
Date Updated
5/5/2009 2:48:24 PM
Less detail

''A Statement to the South and Nation''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570111-008
Author
Southern Leaders Conference
Place Written
Atlanta, Ga.
Document Date
1/10/1957-1/11/1957
Genre
Manifesto
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
Southern Leaders Conference
Document ID
570111-008
Document Date
1/10/1957-1/11/1957
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Document
Status
In Vol. 4
Place Written
Atlanta, Ga.
Genre
Manifesto
Document Length
8 pp.
Document Note
Marginal comments by King.
Dates
1/10/1957 - 1/11/1957
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Shuttlesworth, Fred L.
Steele, C. K.
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous)
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David)
Brownell, Herbert
Christ, Jesus
King, Martin Luther
Organizations
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
United States. Supreme Court
Ebenezer Baptist Church
United States. Dept. of Justice
Topics
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Nonviolence
United States - Constitutional law
Imperialism
Afro-Americans--Intimidation of
Other Topics
Star Spangled Banner
Code for Location of Original
NCCP-PPPrHi
Location of Original
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America Papers, Presbyterian Department of History, Philadelphia, Penn.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 46, folder 30
Copy Location (1)
NCCR-PPPrHi, National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America Records, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pa.
Filing Info
Box 46, folder 30
Copy Location (2)
CAABP-WHi, Carl and Anne Braden Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Filing Info
Box 58, folder 6
Copy Location (3)
CSKC-INP, Coretta Scott King Collection, In Private Hands
Filing Info
Sermon file, folder 132
Copy Location (4)
MLKJP-GAMK, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Box 9, folder 20
Copy Location (5)
RWP-DLC, Roy Wilkins Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Date Created
2/13/1990 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
04/08/1991
Date Updated
7/31/2015 11:37:16 AM
Less detail

''Report on the Southern Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-violent Integration''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570111-035
Author
Lasley, Russell R.
Document Date
[1/11/1957]
Genre
Report
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Lasley, Russell R.
Document ID
570111-035
Document Date
[1/11/1957]
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 4
Genre
Report
Document Length
5 pp.
Dates
1/10/1957
1/9/1957
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr. [Montgomery Improvement Association]
Abernathy, Ralph [Montgomery Improvement Association]
King, Martin Luther
Shuttlesworth, Fred L.
Steele, C. Kenzie
King, Coretta Scott
Pelt, Owen D.
Hayes, Charles
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous)
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David)
Lasley, Russell R.
Davis, A.L.
Carey, James B.
Hall, John H.
Organizations
Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Non-Violent Integration
United Packinghouse Workers of America, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
Ebenezer Baptist Church
Montgomery Improvement Association
United States. Supreme Court
National Baptist Convention of the United States of America
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Birmingham, Ala.
Tallahassee, Fla.
Atlanta, Ga.
Chicago, Ill.
New Orleans, La.
Topics
Segregation--law and legislation
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Meetings
Labor Movement
Churches-vandalism
Code for Location of Original
UPWR-WHi
Location of Original
United Packinghouse, Food and Allied Workers Records, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 373, folder 6; Box 381, folder 5
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
7/8/1998 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
08/04/1998
Date Updated
4/16/2014 6:57:25 PM
Less detail

Letter to Roy Wilkins

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document570311-007
Author
Evers, Medgar Wiley
Place Written
Jackson, Miss.
Document Date
3/11/1957
Genre
Letter
Document Type
Letter
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
Evers, Medgar Wiley
Author Dates
1925-1963
Author Affiliation
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Document ID
570311-007
Document Date
3/11/1957
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Letter
Type of Signature
Signed (Handwritten signature of author)
Status
Cal. 4
Place Written
Jackson, Miss.
Genre
Letter
Document Length
1 p.
Dates
2/14/1957
Names
Wilkins, Roy
Jemison, T. J. (Theodore Judson)
Current, Gloster B. (Gloster Bryant)
Hurley, Ruby
Organizations
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Places
New Orleans. La.
New York, N.Y.
Baton Rouge, La.
Atlanta, Ga.
Topics
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--staff
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Code for Location of Original
NAACPP-DLC
Location of Original
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Papers, 1909-1955, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Location of Original - Detail
Group III- 213A
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
11/7/1991 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
11/08/1991
Date Updated
1/21/2009 4:03:36 PM
Less detail

48 records – page 1 of 5.