Skip header and navigation

Refine By

34 records – page 1 of 4.

Address and press conference at Danville Christian Progressive Association luncheon

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630711-035
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
Danville, Va.
Document Date
[7/11/1963]
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Film
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Document ID
630711-035
Document Date
[7/11/1963]
Document Type
Film
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
Danville, Va.
Genre
Speech
Document Length
21.1 min.
Document Note
1 DVD
Dates
3/26/1963
7/12/1963
8/28/1963
Names
Chase, L. W.
Campbell, Lawrence
Dunlap, I. A.
Thomas, Doyle
Connor, Eugene
Williams, Hosea [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]
King, Coretta Scott
Organizations
Danville Christian Progressive Association
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Ku Klux Klan
American Nazi Party
Congress of Racial Equality
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Birmingham, Ala.
Savannah, Ga.
New York, N.Y.
Cambridge, Md.
Washington, D.C.
Myrtle Beach, S.C.
Topics
Segregation--law and legislation
Birmingham, 1963
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Police - Complaints against
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Nonviolence
Code for Location of Original
CBSNA-NNCBS
Location of Original
CBS News Archives, Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., New York, N.Y.
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
4/20/2012 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
6/4/2012 szwald
Date Updated
3/23/2016 11:05:32 AM
Less detail

Address delivered at The City University of New York Commencement

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630612-049
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
New York, N. Y.
Document Date
6/12/1963
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed

Advance text, I Have a Dream, Address at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630828-003
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
[Washington, D.C.]
Document Date
[8/28/1963]
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Document ID
630828-003
Document Date
[8/28/1963]
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
[Washington, D.C.]
Genre
Speech
Document Length
3 pp.
Names
Lincoln, Abraham
Organizations
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Mississippi
New York
Topics
I Have a Dream
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
Civil rights
Emancipation Proclamation
Police - Complaints against
Discrimination in public accommodations
Discrimination in housing
Other Topics
Amos 5:24
Code for Location of Original
MLKJP-GAMK
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Copy Location (1)
HCBP-NcD, Harry C. Boyte Family Papers, Duke University, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Maunscript Library, Durham, N.C.
Filing Info
Box 29
Copy Location (2)
WTWC-NN-Sc, Wyatt Tee Walker Collection, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.
Filing Info
Box 1, folder 38
Copy Location (3)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
12/21/1990 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
01/03/1992
Date Updated
5/12/2016 5:36:01 PM
Less detail

Ad, ''Who helps the South kill civil rights?...19 Western & Midwestern Senators''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630918-015
Author
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Southern Conference Educational Fund
Place Written
[Phoenix, Ariz.]
Document Date
9/18/1963
Genre
Ephemera
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Southern Conference Educational Fund
Document ID
630918-015
Document Date
9/18/1963
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
[Phoenix, Ariz.]
Genre
Ephemera
Document Length
1 p.
Document Note
Enclosed in 630921-005.
Dates
2/7/1963
Names
King, Martin Luther, Jr. [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]
Lewis, John [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)]
Shuttlesworth, Fred L. [Southern Conference Educational Fund]
Hayden, Carl
Goldwater, Barry M. (Barry Morris)
Eastland, James O. (James Oliver)
Organizations
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Washington, D.C.
Topics
Civil rights
Police - Complaints against
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--publicity
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Code for Location of Original
MLKJP-GAMK
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 22, folder 30
Copy Location (1)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
11/20/2002 12:00:00 AM
Date Updated
12/6/2010 3:54:58 PM
Less detail

Decision, Martin Luther King, Jr. v. Mister Maestro and Twentieth Century Fox Record Corporation

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document631213-005
Author
Mister Maestro, Inc
Twentieth Century-Fox Record Corporation, Defendants
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Document Date
12/13/1963
Genre
Legal
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
Mister Maestro, Inc
Twentieth Century-Fox Record Corporation, Defendants
Document ID
631213-005
Document Date
12/13/1963
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Document
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
New York, N.Y.
Genre
Legal
Document Length
18 pp.
Dates
12/13/1963
6/23/1963
8/28/1963
8/29/1963
9/1/1963
9/18/1963
9/30/1963
10/4/1963
10/8/1963
10/9/1963
10/3/1963
10/21/1963
8/24/1963-8/28/1963
Names
Young, Charles F.
Godofsky, Stanley
Bernstein, David M.
Troob, H. Warren
Wyatt, Inzer B. [United States. District Court (New York: Southern District)]
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Reston, James [New York Times Company]
Bryan, Frederick Van Pelt [United States. District Court (New York: Southern District)]
Organizations
Royall, Koegel and Rogers
Lubell, Lubell, and Jones
Mister Maestro, Inc.
Twentieth Century-Fox Record Corporation
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation
Fox Movietone News
United States. District Court (New York: Southern District)
New York Times Company
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963
New York Post
Library of Congress. Copyright Office
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Georgia
Detroit, Mich.
Washington, D.C.
New York, N.Y.
Delaware
Topics
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
I Have a Dream
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Trials, litigation, etc.
Other Topics
I Have a Dream
The Great March to Freedom
Code for Location of Original
MLKP-MBU
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers, 1954-1968, Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University, Boston, Mass.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 122, folder 32
Date Created
5/12/2003 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
5/15/2003 16:9:42
ebrummel
Date Updated
7/13/2016 4:06:35 PM
Less detail

Draft, ''Normalcy - Never Again''

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630828-001
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
[Washington, D.C.]
Document Date
[8/28/1963]
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Document ID
630828-001
Document Date
[8/28/1963]
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Document
Type of Version
Draft
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
[Washington, D.C.]
Genre
Speech
Document Length
9 pp.
Names
Farmer, James
Lincoln, Abraham
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Wilkins, Roy
Revere, Paul
Organizations
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Montgomery, Ala.
Birmingham, Ala.
Plymouth Rock, Mass.
Topics
I Have a Dream
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
Civil rights
Emancipation Proclamation
Lunch counter sit-in, 1960
Freedom rides
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Code for Location of Original
MCMLK-RWWL
Location of Original
Morehouse College Martin Luther King, Jr. Collection, Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library Archives and Special Collections, Atlanta, Ga.
Location of Original - Detail
2.3.0.1280
Copy Location (1)
DJG-GEU-S, David J. Garrow Collection, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Box 1.1 folder 1963 (II)
Copy Location (2)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
12/21/1990 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
01/03/1992
5/10/2012 jmkunz
Date Updated
6/29/2016 2:57:15 PM
Less detail

Draft, Statement calling for discipline at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630823-000
Author
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Young, Whitney M.
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Forman, James
Farmer, James
Wilkins, Roy
Document Date
8/23/1963
Genre
Document
Document Type
Document
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Author
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Young, Whitney M.
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Forman, James
Farmer, James
Wilkins, Roy
Document ID
630823-000
Document Date
8/23/1963
Type of Writing
Typed
Handwritten -- other than author's hand
Document Type
Document
Type of Version
Draft
Status
Cal. 8
Genre
Document
Document Length
3 pp.
Dates
8/28/1963
Organizations
Negro American Labor Council
National Urban League
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Congress of Racial Equality
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Places
Washington, D.C.
Topics
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Nonviolence
Code for Location of Original
NAACPP-DLC
Location of Original
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Papers, 1909-1955, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Copy Location (1)
SNCCP-GAMK, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers, 1959-1972, Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Reel 7, frame 224
Copy Location (2)
BRP-DLC, Bayard Rustin Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Filing Info
Digital file 001581-008-0717
Copy Location (3)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
2/7/2000 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
02/11/2000
8/26/2016 tenisha
Date Updated
8/26/2016 3:25:11 PM
Less detail

Facing the Challenge of a New Age, Address delivered to the Citizens' Civic Planning Committee

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document631018-000
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Place Written
South Bend, Ind.
Document Date
[10/18/1963]
Genre
Speech
Document Type
Audio Tape
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Author Dates
1929-1968
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Document ID
631018-000
Document Date
[10/18/1963]
Document Type
Audio Tape
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
South Bend, Ind.
Genre
Speech
Document Length
49.2 min.
Document Note
1 sound cassette: analog
Dates
1619
1620
1857
1863
1896
5/17/1954
5/11/1963
8/28/1963
Names
Wilson, Martha
Ganaway, Alphia
Scott, Dred
Hope, Bob
King, Coretta Scott
Donne, John
Benedict, Ruth
Mead, Margaret
Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean)
Noah (Biblical figure)
Aristotle
Washington, Booker T.
Hayes, Roland
Sibelius, Jean
Carver, George Washington
Anderson, Marian
Toscanini, Arturo
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson)
Bethune, Mary McLeod
Aquinas, Thomas, Saint
Buber, Martin
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
Thurmond, Strom
Eastland, James O. (James Oliver)
Plato
Poe, Edgar Allan
Shakespeare, William
Meredith, James
Robertson, Carole Rosamond
Wesley, Cynthia Dianne
Collins, Addie Mae
McNair, Carol Denise
Walker, Wyatt Tee
Amos (Biblical prophet)
Lincoln, Abraham
Jefferson, Thomas
Jesus Christ
Carlyle, Thomas
Bryant, William Cullen
Lowell, James Russell
King, Alfred Daniel
Organizations
Citizens Civic Planning Committee (South Bend, Ind.)
United States. Supreme Court
White Citizens Council
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (Birmingham, Ala.)
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Congress. Senate
Fair Employment Practices Committee
First Baptist Church (Montgomery, Ala.)
A. G. Gaston Motel (Birmingham, Ala.)
Places
Asia
Africa
Plymouth, Mass.
Los Angeles, Calif.
New York, N.Y.
Seatle, Wash.
Tokyo, Japan
Calcutta, India
Bombay, India
Mississippi
Gordon County, Ga.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Finland
South Carolina
Louisiana
Chicago, Ill.
Birmingham, Ala.
Montgomery, Ala.
Anniston, Ala.
Atlanta, Ga.
Washington, D.C.
Topics
World Politics
Nonviolence
Freedom rides
Race relations
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Public Speaking
Imperialism
Plessy vs Ferguson, 1896
Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
India trip
Agape
Discrimination in housing
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--fund raising
Emancipation Proclamation
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Nuclear Disarmament
I Have a Dream
Other Topics
Annabelle Lee
Sonnet 116
Amos 5:24
Matthew 5:44
Code for Location of Original
DHSTR-WHi
Location of Original
Donald H. Smith Tape Recordings, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Location of Original - Detail
Tape 7, side 2.
Copy Location (1)
MLKJP-GAMK, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Copy Location (2)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Filing Info
T-41
Date Created
2/6/1990 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
04/01/1990
Date Updated
7/5/2016 3:29:30 PM
Less detail

Interview by Jay Richard Kennedy

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630828-050
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
McKissick, Floyd B. (Floyd Bixler)
Reuther, Walter
Ahmann, Mathew H.
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Wilkins, Roy
Lewis, John
Young, Whitney M.
Prinz, Joachim
Blake, Eugene Carson
Place Written
Washington, D.C.
Document Date
8/28/1963
Genre
Interview
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Type of Writing
Typed
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
McKissick, Floyd B. (Floyd Bixler)
Reuther, Walter
Ahmann, Mathew H.
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip)
Wilkins, Roy
Lewis, John
Young, Whitney M.
Prinz, Joachim
Blake, Eugene Carson
Document ID
630828-050
Document Date
8/28/1963
Type of Writing
Typed
Document Type
Audio Transcript
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
Washington, D.C.
Genre
Interview
Document Length
19 pp.
Document Note
Enclosed in 631025-003 and 631025-058.
Dates
1956
1942
5/1963
1960
8/29/1963
Names
Rustin, Bayard
Robinson, Cleveland L. (Cleveland Lowellyn)
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald) [United States. White House]
Kennedy, Robert F. [United States. Dept. of Justice]
Meany, George [American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)]
Kennedy, Jay Richard [Metropolitan Broadcasting Television]
Higgins, Jimmy
Albert, Carl B. [United States. Congress. House of Representatives]
Halleck, Charles A. [United States. Congress. House of Representatives]
Evers, Medgar Wiley
O'Boyle, Patrick [Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Washington (D.C.)]
Organizations
Negro American Labor Council
Peace Corps
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Congress of Racial Equality
International Union, United Automobile Workers of America (CIO)
National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
National Urban League
American Jewish Congress
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America
Metropolitan Broadcasting Television
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
United States. White House
United States. Congress. Senate
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
United States. Dept. of Justice
Republican Party
Democratic Party
Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Washington (D.C.)
Places
Mississippi
Georgia
Topics
Afro-Americans - Civil rights
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Civil rights demonstrations
Civil rights movements
Electoral politics
Labor Movement
Nonviolence
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Interviews
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Presidential meetings
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with government officials
Jews
Church and Race Relations
Sit-ins
Other Topics
Favor the Runner
Code for Location of Original
JFKWHCSF-MBJFK
Location of Original
John F. Kennedy Presidential Papers, White House Central Subject Files, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Mass.
Location of Original - Detail
Box 365, folder 8
Copy Location (1)
DJG-GEU-S, David J. Garrow Collection, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Box 1.1, folder 1963 (II)
Copy Location (2)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
7/16/2002 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
07/22/2002
5/10/2012 jmkunz
Date Updated
5/18/2016 3:20:03 PM
Less detail

Interview on ''For Freedom Now'' on 7/22/1963

http://okra.stanford.edu/en/permalink/document630723-000
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Wilkins, Roy
Young, Whitney M.
Farmer, James
Forman, James
Place Written
Boston, Mass.
Document Date
7/23/1963
Genre
Interview
Document Type
Video Transcript
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Author
King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Wilkins, Roy
Young, Whitney M.
Farmer, James
Forman, James
Author Affiliation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
National Urban League
Congress of Racial Equality
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)
Document ID
630723-000
Document Date
7/23/1963
Type of Writing
Printed -- published
Document Type
Video Transcript
Status
Cal. 8
Place Written
Boston, Mass.
Genre
Interview
Document Length
30 pp.
Dates
7/22/1963
4/16/1947-4/17/1947
1957
1956
1960
1975
Names
Clark, Kenneth Bancroft [City College of New York]
Spingarn, Arthur B. (Arthur Barnett) [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)]
Meyer, Agnes
Powell, Adam Clayton
X, Malcolm
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson) [United Nations]
Eastland, James O. (James Oliver)
Evers, Medgar Wiley
Lingo, Al
Kennedy, Robert F. [United States. Dept. of Justice]
Baldwin, James
Morgenthau, Henry [National Educational Television]
Maybank, Mary Rose [National Educational Television]
Barzyk, Fred [National Educational Television]
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald) [United States. White House]
Clayton, Claude F. [United States District Court (Mississippi: Northern District)]
Travis, Jimmy
Murray, Robert V. [Washington (D.C). Police Dept.]
Organizations
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America
United Nations
WGBH-TV Television Station (Boston, Mass.)
City College of New York
United States. Congress. Senate
United States. Congress. House of Representatives
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963
United States. Congress. Senate Commerce Committee
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
United States. Commission on Civil Rights
Real Estate Brokers Association
Council of Economic Advisors (U.S.)
United States. White House
Democratic Party
Republican Party
Washington (D.C). Police Dept.
Places
Washington, D.C.
Danville, Va.
Greenwood, Miss.
Birmingham, Ala.
Chicago, Ill.
Dayton, Ohio
Louisiana
Texas City, Texas
Atlanta, Ga.
New York, N.Y.
Cuba
Hungary
Raleigh, N.C.
Europe
Topics
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Interviews
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Friends and Associates
Civil Rights Act, 1957
Black nationalism
Birmingham, 1963
Discrimination in public accomodations
Segregation--law and legislation
Voter registration
Southern Christian Leadership Conference--relations with other organizations
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Police - Complaints against
Sit-ins
Discrimination in Employment
Afro-Americans - Economic conditions
School integration
Code for Location of Original
MLKJP-GAMK
Location of Original
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers (Series I-IV), Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Copy Location (1)
SNCCP-GAMK, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers, 1959-1972, Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Reel 21, frame 227
Copy Location (2)
SNCCP-GAMK, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers, 1959-1972, Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
Filing Info
Reel 6, frame 134
Copy Location (3)
MLKPP, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Date Created
7/22/1996 12:00:00 AM
Date Verified
07/23/1996
Date Updated
4/21/2016 10:34:18 AM
Less detail

34 records – page 1 of 4.